MA is considered a more potent derivative of AMPH, with a longer duration of action and increased ability to cross the blood–brain barrier; and global shifts in the illicit stimulant market have resulted in the predominance of MA [2, 3]. Stimulant drugs are second only to cannabis as the most widely used class of illicit drug globally, accounting for 68 million past-year consumers. Dependence on amphetamines (AMPH) or methamphetamine (MA) is a growing global concern. A comprehensive assessment of the research literature on pharmacotherapy for AMPH/MA dependence may inform treatment guidelines and future research directions. Amphetamine is a medication used in the management and treatment of ADHD and narcolepsy. This activity reviews the indications, action, and contraindications for amphetamine as an agent in treating ADHD and narcolepsy.

Changes in the brain

  • A person can find it hard to stop taking a substance, which usually implies that they are physically dependent on the substance.
  • Thus, we evaluated the effectiveness of different medications by estimating the risk for unfavorable outcomes (hospitalizations or death), as these outcomes represent significant disadvantages and costs for both the individual and society.
  • If you have severe withdrawal symptoms, you may need to stay at a live-in treatment program.
  • The pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relationships of lisdexamfetamine and immediate-release (IR) d-amphetamine sulphate have been explored in rats, where automated blood sampling was combined with striatal microdialysate sampling.

It may be done by family and friends in consultation with a health care provider or mental health professional such as a licensed alcohol and drug counselor, or directed by an intervention professional. It involves family and friends and sometimes co-workers, clergy or others who care about the person struggling with addiction. Yes, amphetamines have a high potential for abuse and addiction despite medical uses. The Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) categorized amphetamines as a Schedule II Substance. It’s a chronic brain disorder involving compulsive drug seeking and use despite negative consequences. While the effects of amphetamines are almost immediate, tolerance builds quickly, which frequently increases the amount needed to produce the desired effect.

What are amphetamines?

Follow-up started at the first diagnosis of MAUD and ended at death, emigration, diagnosis of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, or end of study follow-up (December 31, 2018). Statistical significance was set at .05 using Benjamini-Hochberg false discovery rate amphetamine addiction method on a per graph basis. The results are reported as adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) with 95% CIs. To our knowledge, no studies have investigated the effectiveness of pharmacological treatments concerning hard outcomes, such as hospitalization and death.

How is amphetamine dependence treated?

  • Amphetamine and dextroamphetamine doses are based on weight (especially in children and teenagers).
  • The four study arms were sertraline only, sertraline and CM, placebo only, placebo and CM.
  • Medication use periods (ie, when medication use started and ended) were constructed using the PRE2DUP (from prescription drug purchases to drug use periods) method26 (eMethods in the Supplement).
  • Call for an appointment with your health care provider if you or someone you know is addicted to amphetamines and needs help to stop using.
  • In fact, breaking the capsule open and dissolving the contents in water is stated as a dosing route for patients who are unable to swallow capsules (Vyvanse®, US Product Label).
  • Methamphetamine causes increased activity, decreased appetite, and a general sense of well-being.

Amphetamine abuse has been also recently reported among Iranian illicit drug abusers [3]. In addition, amphetamines abuse remains a health concern in Iran and has impacted some Iranian populations [3]. Amphetamines are powerful stimulant drugs that affect the central nervous system. They’re effective in helping manage attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or narcolepsy, but they’re also prone to misuse and abuse. Amphetamines are prescription medications or illegal substances that are also known as stimulants, as they speed up your metabolism and increase your alertness. When legally prescribed, they are typically used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.

Implications of pharmacokinetics of lisdexamfetamine for efficacy, safety and recreational abuse liability

Amphetamine Addiction

In addition, there was no information on the possible effects of withdrawal symptoms or craving of amphetamine or methamphetamine. Thus, we evaluated the effectiveness of different medications by estimating the risk for unfavorable outcomes (hospitalizations or death), as these outcomes represent significant disadvantages and costs for both the individual and society. Another limitation of this study is that we did not know how many of the studied medications were indicated for some specific comorbidity.

Amphetamine Addiction

It was left to certain paediatricians to develop the requisite expertise in the use of stimulants for treating children with ADHD, which many did quite successfully. In recent years, child psychiatrists have begun to assume a prescribing role as well, largely using methylphenidate preparations. Diagnosing drug addiction (substance use disorder) requires a thorough evaluation and often includes an assessment by a psychiatrist, a psychologist, or a licensed alcohol and drug counselor. Blood, urine or other lab tests are used to assess drug use, but they’re not a diagnostic test for addiction. However, these tests may be used for monitoring treatment and recovery.

Consumption of MA triggers a cascading release of norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin. The drug (to a lesser extent) acts as a dopaminergic and adrenergic reuptake inhibitor, and in higher concentrations as a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) [1, 21]. The CNS effects produced by MA are mostly the result of influencing levels of dopamine and norepinephrine, and to a lesser extent serotonin [1, 21]. No pharmacotherapy yielded convincing results for the treatment of AMPH/MA dependence; mostly studies were underpowered and had low treatment completion rates. However, there were positive signals from several agents that warrant further investigation in larger scale studies; agonist therapies show promise. Future research must address the heterogeneity of AMPH/MA dependence (e.g. coexisting conditions, severity of disorder, differences between MA and AMPH dependence) and the role of psychosocial intervention.

Associated Data

Adverse effects

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